Ancient world (pre 509 BC)

  • c4000-2700 - development of megalithic burial cultures on the Atlantic coast; at Boyne-Orkney, Morbihan, and Tagus.
  • c2700-2200 - Old Kingdom in Egypt
  • c2700-2000 - Summerian period in Mesopotamia
  • c2200-1450 - Middle Minoan palace culture
  • c2130-1800 - Middle Kingdom in Egypt
  • c2100 - probably arrival of Mycenean Greeks in Greece.
  • c2000-1700 - Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia
  • c2000-1400 - development of elites in Wessex, Amorica and Ireland.
  • c1600-1200 - development of Mycenean palace culture
  • c1575-1000 - New Kingdom in Egypt
  • c1450 - Mycenean domination of the Agean
  • c1400 - beginning of Assyrian domination of central Mesopotamia.
  • 1352-1336 - Reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten.
  • 1279-1213 - Reign of Ramses II.
  • c1200 - Hittite Empire destroyed by peoples of south Russia.
  • c1000-750 - age of Phoenician expansion.
  • 814 - traditional date of the foundation of Carthage
  • c800 - foundation of Gadir (Cadiz), Phoenician trading city; trade with Tartessos
  • 776 - first Olympic games
  • 775-650 - Greek colonisation in the western mediterranian
  • 753 - traditional date of the foundation of Rome
  • 734-680 - Lelantine war between Chalcis and Eretria.
  • 730-710 - Spartan conquest of Messenia
  • 720 - Sargon of Assyria conquers Syria, Israel (722)
  • c700-400 - La Tene / Hallstatt period of central European Celtic culture.
  • 664 - Greeks begin to penetrate Egypt as mercenaries and traders
  • 612-609 - Fall of Nineveh - division of Assyrian Empire between Media and Babylon
  • 600 - Foundation of Massalia by Phocaeans.
  • 595-586 - first Sacred War for the control of Delphi.
  • 587 - capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon.
  • 559-530 - Cyrus founds Persian Empire.
  • 545 - conquest of the Ionian Greeks by Persians.
  • 540 - Battle of Alalia - Carthaginians and Etruscans check Greek expansion in western Mediterranian.
  • 512 - Darius conquers Thrace.
  • 509 - Foundation of Roman Republic.

(c) 2011 Jeremy Baker