Classical world (509-27 BC)

  • 509 - Foundation of Roman republic
  • 508 - reforms of Cleisthenes at Athens
  • 506 - Athens defeats Chalcis and Beotians
  • 490 - battle of Marathon
  • 480 - Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
  • 478 - foundation of the Delian League against Persia
  • 474 - Syracuse defeats Etruscans at battle of Cumae
  • 461-451 - first Peloponnesian war
  • 431-404 - second Peloponnesian war
  • 396 - Romans capture Etruscan city of Veii
  • 390 - Gauls sack Rome
  • 378 - foundation the second Athenian Confederacy
  • 366-360 - Satraps' Revolt from Persian King
  • 359 - Philip II becomes King of Macedon
  • 357 - war between Macedon and Athens; Social War between Athens and members of her confederacy (357-55)
  • 340-338 - Latin War - Rome incorporates Latium and Campania
  • 338 - Philip defeats Athens & Thebes
  • 336-323 - reign of Alexander the Great
  • 334 - Alexander crosses into Asia, conquest of Asia Minor.
  • 331 - foundation of Alexandria; defeat of Darius at Gaugamela, capture of Mesopotamia, Babylon, Persepolis and Pasargadae.
  • 326 - Alexander conquers Punjab, reaches Indian Ocean.
  • c325 - Pytheas of Massilia's voyage to Britain
  • 311 - division of Alexander's empire; foundation of Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt.
  • 310 - Romans advance into Etruria
  • 303 - Seleucus cedes Indian territories to Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan dynasty
  • 279 - invasion of Macedon and Greece by Gauls
  • 272 - surrender of Tarentum, Roman alliance with southern Italian Greek cities
  • 298-290 - Third Samnite war
  • 264-241 - First Punic War - Rome gains control of Sicily
  • 228 - Rome establishes protectorate over the Illyrian coast
  • 219-217 - Fourth Syrian War between Egypt and Seleucid Empire
  • 218-201 - Second Punic War - Rome gains colonies in Spain
  • 214-205 - first Macedonian War between Rome and Philip V
  • 202-191 - Roman conquest of Cisapline Gaul
  • 197-133 - wars in Spain
  • 167 - defeat of Macedon; Romans order Antiochus IV out of Egypt; Maccabean revolt against Antiochus.
  • 149-146 - third Carthaginian War - destruction of Carthage, Africa becomes a Roman province
  • 148 - fourth Macedonian war; sack of Corinth. Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
  • 141-130 - Parthians attack Seleucid Empire.
  • 133 - Pergamum bequeathed to Rome; becomes province of Asia (129)
  • 88-63 - Mithridatic wars. Pompey victorious; establishment of provinces of Bithynia, Cilicia, Syria, Crete.
  • 82-80 - Dictatorship of Sulla
  • 73-71 - slave revolt of Spartacus
  • 63 - Consulate of Cicero; Catilinarian conspiracy; Caesar elected pontifex maximus
  • 60 - first triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus and Caesar
  • 58-49 - Caesar campaigns in Gaul
  • 55-53 - Crassus campaigns in the East, killed by the Parthians at the battle of Carrhae.
  • 49 - Ceasar crosses the Rubicon
  • 47-44 - Dictatorship of Ceasar
  • 42 - Republicans defeated at Philippi; Brutus & Cassius commit suicide
  • 31 - Octavian defeats Antony at battle of Actium
  • 30 - annexation of Egypt by Rome.
  • 27 - 'Republic restored'; Octavian given the name 'Augustus'.

(c) 2011 Jeremy Baker