High Medieval (1066 - 1453 AD)

  • 1066 - Battle of Hastings, William I conquers England.
  • 1073-85 - Pontificate of Gregory VII
  • 1076 - execution of Earl Waltheof of Northumbria.
  • 1086 - Domesday survey.
  • 1096-99 First Crusade, capture of Jerusalem.
  • 1098 - foundation of Cistercian Order.
  • 1100 - death of William Rufus, in a hunting accident.
  • 1122 - Concordat of Worms
  • 1135-1153 - 'the Anarchy'; ending with the Treaty of Winchester.
  • 1152 - Election of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa; marriage of Eleanor of Aquitane to Henry Plantagenet.
  • 1167 - formation of the Lombard League.
  • 1168 - discovery of silver at Freiberg, providing bullion for increased coinage.
  • 1177 - construction of bridge of Avignon.
  • 1187 - battle of Hattin, Saladin overruns Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • 1189-92 - Third Crusade; death of Frederick Barbarossa (1190).
  • 1198-1216 - Pontificate of Innocent III.
  • 1199 - accession of King John of England
  • 1204 - Philip Augustus of France takes Normandy from England; sack of Constantinople by the armies of the Fourth Crusade.
  • 1209-13 - Albigensian Crusade.
  • 1210 - St Francis of Assisi promulgates his Regula primitiva.
  • 1214 - battle of Bouvines; Philip Augustus defeats Emperor Otto IV & the Count of Flanders.
  • 1215 - Magna Carta
  • 1224 - foundation of the University of Naples by Frederick II, as the official institution of learning for the Regno (Norman Sicily).
  • 1228 - cannonisation of St Francis (two years after his death).
  • 1248 - Surrender of Seville, leaving only Grenada under Moslem control.
  • 1252 - Teutonic Knights found Memel
  • 1282-83 - Edward I campaigns in Wales; deaths of Llywelyn and David ap Gruffudd ends the native dynasty of Gwynedd.
  • 1290s - Wars of Scottish Independence.
  • 1314 - Battle of Bannockburn.
  • 1315-17 - harvest failures, famine across Europe.
  • 1321-27 - Despencer War; deposition and murder of Edward II.
  • 1328 - Paris estimated to have 200,000 inhabitants.
  • 1337 - commencement of the Hundred Years War.
  • 1348-49 - Black Death sweeps through Europe.
  • 1356 - Defeat of French at Poitiers by the Black Prince.
  • 1378-81 - War of Chioggia - Venetians destroy naval power of the Genoese.
  • 1402-06 - Revolt of Owen Glendower in Wales.
  • 1415 - French defeated by Henry V at Agincourt.
  • 1420 - Treaty of Troyes - Henry V acknowledged as heir to Charles VI of France.
  • 1429 - Seige of Orleans raised by Joan of Arc.
  • 1453 - Fall of Constantinople, and end of the Eastern Roman Empire.

(c) 2011 Jeremy Baker